Cholecystitis: association between ultrasound findings and surgical outcomes.
AIM: To identify sonographic signs of cholecystitis that correlate with surgical outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred and thirty-three consecutive patients who underwent cholecystectomy between 22/06/2014 and 1/3/2016 and underwent abdominal ultrasound (US) within 7 days of surgery were included. Individual US signs, including gallstones, gallbladder distention, wall thickening, pericholecystic fluid, and abscess, were graded by two radiologists, 1 and 2. Outcomes included operative duration (OD), drain placement, partial cholecystectomy, conversion from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy, surgical pathology, bile leak, infection, and 30-day readmission. US signs and outcomes were analysed using analysis of variance, chi-square test, or odds ratios (OR). RESULTS: Radiologist 1 reported 141/333 and radiologist 2 reported 128/333 patients showed gallbladder distention. For the subset with OD, radiologist 1 reported 140/320 and radiologist 2 reported 126/320 patients showed gallbladder distention. Distention was predictive of increased OD (radiologist 1, +23.2 minutes, p<0.0001; radiologist 2, +19.4 minutes, p=0.0003). Cases with gallbladder distention were more likely to have surgical drain placement (OR= 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-6.08, p=0.027 radiologist 1; OR=2.59; 95% CI: 1.13-5.95, p=0.025 radiologist 2). Wall thickening was present in 126/333 patients reported by radiologist 1 and 120/333 by radiologist 2. Cases with wall thickening were more likely to have drain placement (OR=2.66; 95% CI: 1.16-6.13, p=0.021 radiologist 1; OR=3.49; 95% CI: 1.49-8.16, p=0.004 radiologist 2). For the subset with OD, wall thickening was present for 121/320 reported by radiologist 1 and 116/320 by radiologist 2 and predicted longer OD (radiologist 1, +15.9 minutes, p=0.0033; radiologist 2, +13.3 minutes, p=0.0143). CONCLUSION: Gallbladder distention and wall thickening on US correlate with prolonged OD and surgical drain placement in patients with cholecystitis.
Van Roekel, D., C. A. LeBedis, J. Santos, D. Paul, M. M. Qureshi, G. Kasotakis, and A. Gupta. “Cholecystitis: association between ultrasound findings and surgical outcomes.” Clin Radiol 77, no. 5 (May 2022): 360–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crad.2022.02.002.