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Biliary atresia in a neonate with a history of COVID-19: A case report.

Introduction and importance: Biliary Atresia is the progressive destruction of the neonatal intra- and extra- hepatic bile ducts. The novel coronavirus has shown dramatic hepatic tropism, and patients experiencing liver injury appear to have worse outcomes. We present the first documented case of a neonate diagnosed with Biliary Atresia and a prior history of COVID-19. Case presentation: A two-month-old female presented with increasing scleral icterus. Her laboratory testing demonstrated direct hyperbilirubinemia, with elevated alkaline phosphatase and increased ALT. She tested positive for COVID-19 at that time, requiring a two-week quarantine during which time she did not develop respiratory symptoms. Two weeks later, she presented to the hospital with emesis and an evaluation concerning for biliary atresia. She ultimately underwent a Kasai repair and recovered well with no significant post-operative complications. Clinical discussion: Biliary Atresia is a heterogenous disease of unknown etiology, though viral triggers are suggested to contribute. COVID-19 disease is frequently associated with liver damage, though its relationship to Biliary Atresia is unexplored. We present a case of a neonate who contracted COVID-19 infection, and subsequently developed biliary atresia. Conclusion: Considering this child's concurrent COVID-19 infection, viral mediated hepatic and biliary inflammation may have contributed to the development of Biliary Atresia in this case. The proposed relationship requires additional investigation but may suggest value in COVID-19 testing for patients presenting with Biliary Atresia.

Citation: 

Thornton, Steven W., Raluca E. Gosman, Debra L. Sudan, Henry E. Rice, Mitchell K. Arbogast, and Tamara N. Fitzgerald. “Biliary atresia in a neonate with a history of COVID-19: A case report.” Int J Surg Case Rep 90 (January 2022): 106705. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2021.106705.

Published Date: 
Saturday, January 1, 2022
Published In: 
International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
PMID: 
34952315