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Impact of dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation on performance of termination of resuscitation criteria.


Current Advanced Life Support Termination of Resuscitation (TOR) guidelines suggest when to cease cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). With the significant increase of Dispatch-Assisted CPR (DA-CPR) programs, the impact of DA-CPR on the TOR criteria performance is not clear.


We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospectively collected registry, the Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study. We included patients >15 years old with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest between 2014 and 2017 (after implementation of Singapore's DA-CPR program). We excluded patients with non-cardiac etiology, known do-not-resuscitate status, and healthcare provider bystanders. All cases were collected in accordance to Utstein standards. We evaluated the addition of DA-CPR to the diagnostic performance of TOR criteria using logistic regression modeling. The primary outcome was performance for predicting non-survival at 30 days. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated.


Of the 6009 cases, 319 (5.3%) were still alive at 30 days. Patients had a mean age of 67.9 (standard deviation 15.7) years and were mostly male and Chinese. Almost half of patients had no bystander CPR. The TOR criteria differentiating DA-CPR from unassisted bystander CPR has a specificity of 94% and predictive value of death of 99%, which was not significantly different from undifferentiated CPR criteria. There were differences in adjusted association with survival between unassisted and DA-CPR.


Advanced life support TOR criteria retain high specificity and predictive value of death in the context of DA-CPR. Further research should explore the differences between unassisted CPR and DA-CPR to understand differential survival outcomes.


Limkakeng, Alexander T., Jinny J. Ye, Catherine Staton, Yih Yng Ng, Benjamin S. H. Leong, Nur Shahidah, Muhammad Yazid, et al. “Impact of dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation on performance of termination of resuscitation criteria.” Resuscitation 170 (December 3, 2021): 160–66.

Published Date: 
Friday, December 3, 2021
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