Comparison of Different Pulse Modulation Modes for Holmium:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet Laser Lithotripsy Ablation in a Benchtop Model.
Introduction: Manipulation of Holmium:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet laser parameters such as pulse energy (PE), frequency, and duration can impact laser lithotripsy ablation efficiency. In 2017, Lumenis introduced Moses™ Technology, which uses pulse modulation to enhance the delivery of energy from fiber to stone as well as to minimize stone retropulsion. Since the introduction of Moses Technology, other companies have brought additional pulse modulation concepts to market. The purpose of this in vitro study is to compare the pulse characteristics and stone ablation efficiency of Lumenis Moses Technology with Quanta's Vapor Tunnel™. Materials and Methods: Submerged BegoStone phantoms were systematically ablated using either the Lumenis Moses Pulse 120H or the Quanta Litho 100 clinical laser system. Two PEs (0.4 and 1 J), three fiber-stone standoff distances (SDs) (0.5, 1, 2 mm), and all available pulse duration and modulation modes for each laser were tested in combination. Fiber speed was adjusted to scan across the stone surface at either 1 or 10 pulses/mm to form single pulse craters or an ablation trough, respectively. Volumes of single craters and 1 mm trough segments were imaged and quantified using optical coherence tomography. Results: Ablation volumes decreased with decreasing PE and increasing SD. Statistically significant variability was seen between pulse types (PT) at every tested parameter set. Among pulse modulation modes, Moses Distance (MD) was superior at 0.5 mm in all testing and at 2 mm in trough testing. Vapor Tunnel (VT) was superior in 2 mm single crater testing. All modulated pulses performed similarly at 1 mm. Conclusions: In this benchtop model of laser lithotripsy, stone ablation was significantly impacted by PT. MD demonstrated superior or noninferior stone ablation at most tested parameters. VT maintained its efficacy the best as SD increased. Future work should focus on the mechanistic differences of these modes relative to other traditional laser pulse modes.
Terry, Russell S., Derek S. Ho, Dominick M. Scialabba, Patrick S. Whelan, Robert Qi, Brian T. Ketterman, Glenn M. Preminger, Pei Zhong, and Michael E. Lipkin. “Comparison of Different Pulse Modulation Modes for Holmium:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet Laser Lithotripsy Ablation in a Benchtop Model.” J Endourol 36, no. 1 (January 2022): 29–37. https://doi.org/10.1089/end.2021.0113.