Skip to main content

Prevention of Urinary Stones With Hydration (PUSH): Design and Rationale of a Clinical Trial.

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Although maintaining high fluid intake is an effective low-risk intervention for the secondary prevention of urinary stone disease, many patients with stones do not increase their fluid intake. STUDY DESIGN: We describe the rationale and design of the Prevention of Urinary Stones With Hydration (PUSH) Study, a randomized trial of a multicomponent behavioral intervention program to increase and maintain high fluid intake. Participants are randomly assigned (1:1 ratio) to the intervention or control arm. The target sample size is 1,642 participants. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Adults and adolescents 12 years and older with a symptomatic stone history and low urine volume are eligible. Exclusion criteria include infectious or monogenic causes of urinary stone disease and comorbid conditions precluding increased fluid intake. INTERVENTIONS: All participants receive usual care and a smart water bottle with smartphone application. Participants in the intervention arm receive a fluid intake prescription and an adaptive program of behavioral interventions, including financial incentives, structured problem solving, and other automated adherence interventions. Control arm participants receive guideline-based fluid instructions. OUTCOMES: The primary end point is recurrence of a symptomatic stone during 24 months of follow-up. Secondary end points include changes in radiographic stone burden, 24-hour urine output, and urinary symptoms. LIMITATIONS: Periodic 24-hour urine volumes may not fully reflect daily behavior. CONCLUSIONS: With its highly novel features, the PUSH Study will address an important health care problem. FUNDING: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered at with study number NCT03244189.


Scales, Charles D., Alana C. Desai, Jonathan D. Harper, H Henry Lai, Naim M. Maalouf, Peter P. Reese, Gregory E. Tasian, et al. “Prevention of Urinary Stones With Hydration (PUSH): Design and Rationale of a Clinical Trial.” Am J Kidney Dis 77, no. 6 (June 2021): 898-906.e1.

Published Date: 
Tuesday, June 1, 2021
Published In: 
Am J Kidney Dis