Conventional Ultrafiltration During Elective Cardiac Surgery and Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury.
OBJECTIVE: Conventional ultrafiltration (CUF) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) serves to hemoconcentrate blood volume to avoid allogeneic blood transfusions. Previous studies have determined CUF volumes as a continuous variable are associated with postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery, but optimal weight-indexed volumes that predict AKI have not been described. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Single-center university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1,641 consecutive patients who underwent elective cardiac surgery between June 2013 and December 2015. INTERVENTIONS: The CUF volume was removed during CPB in all participants as part of routine practice. The authors investigated the association of dichotomized weight-indexed CUF volume removal with postoperative AKI development to provide pragmatic guidance for clinical practice at the authors' institution. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Primary outcomes of postoperative AKI were defined by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes staging criteria and dichotomized, weight-indexed CUF volumes (mL/kg) were defined by (1) extreme quartiles (Q3) and (2) Youden's criterion that best predicted AKI development. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed to test the association of these dichotomized indices with AKI status. Postoperative AKI occurred in 827 patients (50.4%). Higher CUF volumes were associated with AKI development by quartiles (CUF >Q3 = 32.6 v CUF < Q1 = 10.4 mL/kg; odds ratio [OR] = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.19-2.3) and Youden's criterion (CUF ≥ 32.9 v CUF <32.9 mL/kg; OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.21-2.13). Despite similar intraoperative nadir hematocrits among groups (p = 0.8), higher CUF volumes were associated with more allogeneic blood transfusions (p = 0.002) and longer lengths of stay (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Removal of weight-indexed CUF volumes > 32 mL/kg increased the risk for postoperative AKI development. Importantly, CUF volume removal of any amount did not mitigate allogeneic blood transfusion during elective cardiac surgery. Prospective studies are needed to validate these findings.
Manning, Michael W., Yi-Ju Li, Dean Linder, John C. Haney, Yi-Hung Wu, Mihai V. Podgoreanu, Madhav Swaminathan, et al. “Conventional Ultrafiltration During Elective Cardiac Surgery and Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury.” J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 35, no. 5 (May 2021): 1310–18. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2020.11.036.