Isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells in orthopaedics and the emergence of compact bone mesenchymal stem cells as a promising surgical adjunct.
The potential clinical and economic impact of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is immense. MSCs act through multiple pathways: (1) as "trophic" cells, secreting various factors that are immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, proangiogenic, proliferative, and chemoattractive; (2) in conjunction with cells native to the tissue they reside in to enhance differentiation of surrounding cells to facilitate tissue regrowth. Researchers have developed methods for the extraction and expansion of MSCs from animal and human tissues. While many sources of MSCs exist, including adipose tissue and iliac crest bone graft, compact bone (CB) MSCs have shown great potential for use in orthopaedic surgery. CB MSCs exert powerful immunomodulatory effects in addition to demonstrating excellent regenerative capacity for use in filling boney defects. CB MSCs have been shown to have enhanced response to hypoxic conditions when compared with other forms of MSCs. More work is needed to continue to characterize the potential applications for CB MSCs in orthopaedic trauma.
Anastasio, Albert, Marina Gergues, Michael S. Lebhar, Pranela Rameshwar, and Joseph Fernandez-Moure. “Isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells in orthopaedics and the emergence of compact bone mesenchymal stem cells as a promising surgical adjunct.” World J Stem Cells 12, no. 11 (November 26, 2020): 1341–53. https://doi.org/10.4252/wjsc.v12.i11.1341.