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Gonadal vein transposition is a safe and effective treatment of nutcracker syndrome.

BACKGROUND: Nutcracker syndrome (NCS) is a pelvic venous disorder that results from outflow obstruction of the left renal vein, most often due to a decreased aortomesenteric angle, leading to gonadal vein reflux, pain, and varices. Although a number of open and minimally invasive procedures to treat NCS have been described, the optimal management of this condition remains uncertain. To the best of our knowledge, we have presented the largest case series to date using gonadal vein transposition (GVT) to treat NCS. METHODS: Patients considered for intervention to treat NCS underwent a rigorous and standardized workup, including axial imaging studies, catheter-based diagnostic procedures, and urinalysis. GVT has been the institutional first-line treatment of NCS for appropriate patients. With institutional review board approval, a retrospective review of patients who had undergone GVT for NCS was conducted. RESULTS: From 2014 to 2019, 18 GVTs had been performed. Of the 18 patients, none had died or required reintervention, although 2 had required readmission. During a median follow-up of 178 days, complete symptom relief was achieved in 11 patients (61.1%), with 4 patients (22.2%) reporting partial symptom relief and 2 (11.1%) reporting transient symptom relief. CONCLUSIONS: GVT is a safe and effective procedure to treat NCS in appropriately selected patients with outcomes that compare favorably with those of other described procedures. Appropriate patient selection for this procedure is critical and requires a rigorous and standardized approach to diagnosis and management.


Gilmore, Brian F., Ehsan Benrashid, Daniel Geersen, and Cynthia K. Shortell. “Gonadal vein transposition is a safe and effective treatment of nutcracker syndrome.” J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 9, no. 3 (May 2021): 712–19.

Published Date: 
Saturday, May 1, 2021
Published In: 
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord