Predominant envelope variable loop 2-specific and gp120-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity antibody responses in acutely SIV-infected African green monkeys.
The initial envelope (Env)-specific antibody response in acutely HIV-1-infected individuals and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkeys (RMs) is dominated by non-neutralizing antibodies targeting Env gp41. In contrast, natural primate SIV hosts, such as African green monkeys (AGMs), develop a predominant Env gp120-specific antibody response to SIV infection. However, the fine-epitope specificity and function of SIV Env-specific plasma IgG, and their potential role on autologous virus co-evolution in SIV-infected AGMs and RMs remain unclear.Unlike the dominant linear gp41-specific IgG responses in RMs, SIV-infected AGMs demonstrated a unique linear variable loop 2 (V2)-specific plasma IgG response that arose concurrently with high gp120-directed antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity, and SIVsab-infected cell binding responses during acute infection. Moreover, SIV variants isolated from SIV-infected AGMs exhibited high amino acid mutation frequencies within the Env V1V2 loop compared to those of RMs. Notably, the linear V2-specific IgG epitope in AGMs overlaps with an analogous region of the HIV V2 loop containing the K169 mutation epitope identified in breakthrough viruses from RV144 vaccinees.Vaccine-elicited Env V2-specific IgG responses have been proposed as an immune correlate of reduced risk in HIV-1/SIV acquisition in humans and RMs. Yet the pathways to elicit these potentially-protective V2-specific IgG responses remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that SIV-infected AGMs, which are the natural hosts of SIV, exhibited high plasma linear V2-specific IgG binding responses that arose concurrently with SIV Env gp120-directed ADCC-mediating, and SIV-infected cell plasma IgG binding responses during acute SIV infection, which were not present in acutely SIV-infected RMs. The linear V2-specific antibody response in AGMs targets an overlapping epitope of the proposed site of vaccine-induced immune pressure defined in the moderately protective RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial. Identifying host factors that control the early elicitation of Env V2-specific IgG and ADCC antibody responses in these natural SIV hosts could inform vaccination strategies aimed at rapidly inducing potentially-protective HIV-1 Env-specific responses in humans.
Nguyen, QN, Martinez, DR, Himes, JE, Whitney Edwards, R, Han, Q, Kumar, A, Mangan, R, Nicely, NI, Xie, G, Vandergrift, N, Shen, X, Pollara, J, and Permar, SR. "Predominant envelope variable loop 2-specific and gp120-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity antibody responses in acutely SIV-infected African green monkeys." Retrovirology 15, no. 1 (March 9, 2018): 24-null.