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William Parker, PhD

Associate Professor of Surgery
Office: 487 Med Sci Res Bldg, Durham, NC 27710
Campus Mail: DUMC Box 2605 Med Ctr, Durham, NC 27710

1. Transplantation: We have been studying transplantation and organ rejection now for about 25 years. Work through the years has included extensive study of xenotransplantation and aspiration-induced pulmonary rejection, with Jeffrey Platt, Randy Bollinger, Duane Davis, and Shu Lin. New studies with organ preservation and Dr. Andrew Barbas are now underway.

2. Gut immunity: Research has focused on the promicrobial aspects of the immune system. In collaboration with Dr. Randy Bollinger, we have focused on the model of "immune inclusion" in the gut. Earlier work led to a determination of the apparent function of the human vermiform appendix. Ongoing studies are aimed at probing the evolution of the microbiota in the gut in response to changing environments, a process that may be important in a wide range of inflammatory diseases.

3. Protein folding: Research has focused on the potential role of amphiphilic α-helical potential in the folding of all proteins, including predominantly β-sheet proteins. We are currently conducting experiments aimed at evaluating the working hypothesis that α-helical "dormant domains" are involved in the folding of β-sheet proteins.

4. The biota alteration theory, or biome depletion theory: What is widely known as the “hygiene hypothesis” is more appropriately described as the biota alteration or biome depletion theory: Changes in symbiont composition in the ecosystem of the human body in Western culture has led to immune dysfunction and subsequent disease. We are working on several aspects of this theory. Our earlier studies probe the immunological differences between laboratory-raised and wild-raised animals as a means of assessing differences between humans with and without Western culture, respectively. Other studies probe the role of biome enrichment, in particular the addition of helminths, in the treatment of disease. Studies are ongoing in both humans and in animals, with particular attention to the role of biome depletion in cognitive dysfunction.

Education and Training

  • Ph.D., University of Nebraska Omaha, 1992

Publications

Bush, E. L., J. Z. Appel, B. Li, K. R. Balsara, M. Hartwig, E. Cantu, W. Parker, R. D. Davis, and S. S. Lin. “380: Chronic aspiration in lung allotransplantation induces a donor-specific hyperimmune state.” In The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, 26:S196–S196. Elsevier BV, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2006.11.401.

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Cantu, E., K. R. Balsara, B. Li, C. Lau, S. Gibson, A. Wyse, K. Baig, et al. “Prolonged function of macrophage, von Willebrand factor-deficient porcine pulmonary xenografts..” Am J Transplant 7, no. 1 (January 2007): 66–75. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-6143.2006.01603.x.

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Lesher, Aaron, Bin Li, Parker Whitt, Nolan Newton, Aditya P. Devalapalli, Karl Shieh, Jonathan S. Solow, and William Parker. “Increased IL-4 production and attenuated proliferative and pro-inflammatory responses of splenocytes from wild-caught rats (Rattus norvegicus)..” Immunol Cell Biol 84, no. 4 (August 2006): 374–82. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1711.2006.01440.x.

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Devalapalli, A. P., A. Lesher, K. Shieh, J. S. Solow, M. L. Everett, A. S. Edala, P. Whitt, R. R. Long, N. Newton, and W. Parker. “Increased levels of IgE and autoreactive, polyreactive IgG in wild rodents: implications for the hygiene hypothesis..” Scand J Immunol 64, no. 2 (August 2006): 125–36. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3083.2006.01785.x.

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Gaca, Jeffrey G., James Z. Appel, Jeffrey G. Lukes, Gonzalo V. Gonzalez-Stawinski, Aaron Lesher, Daniel Palestrant, John S. Logan, et al. “Effect of an anti-C5a monoclonal antibody indicates a prominent role for anaphylatoxin in pulmonary xenograft dysfunction..” Transplantation 81, no. 12 (June 27, 2006): 1686–94. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.tp.0000226063.36325.02.

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Cantu, Edward, Jeffrey G. Gaca, Daniel Palestrant, Kamran Baig, Daniel J. Lukes, Sarah E. Gibson, Gonzalo V. Gonzalez-Stawinski, Michael Olausson, William Parker, and R Duane Davis. “Depletion of pulmonary intravascular macrophages prevents hyperacute pulmonary xenograft dysfunction..” Transplantation 81, no. 8 (April 27, 2006): 1157–64. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.tp.0000169758.57679.2a.

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Bollinger, R Randal, Mary Lou Everett, Shaina D. Wahl, Yu-Huei Lee, Paul E. Orndorff, and William Parker. “Secretory IgA and mucin-mediated biofilm formation by environmental strains of Escherichia coli: role of type 1 pili..” Mol Immunol 43, no. 4 (February 2006): 378–87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2005.02.013.

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Hartwig, Matthew G., James Z. Appel, Bin Li, Chong-Chao Hsieh, Yong Han Yoon, Shu S. Lin, William Irish, William Parker, and R Duane Davis. “Chronic aspiration of gastric fluid accelerates pulmonary allograft dysfunction in a rat model of lung transplantation..” J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 131, no. 1 (January 2006): 209–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2005.06.054.

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Lukes, D. J., E. Cantu, J. G. Gaca, E. Hallberg, A. Karlsson-Parra, W. Parker, M. Olausson, and R. D. Davis. “Oral feeding with pig peripheral lymphocytes decreases the xenogeneic delayed type hypersensitivity reaction in galactosyltransferase knockout mice..” Transplant Proc 37, no. 8 (October 2005): 3327–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2005.09.005.

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