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William Parker, PhD

Associate Professor of Surgery
Office: 487 Med Sci Res Bldg, Durham, NC 27710
Campus Mail: DUMC Box 2605 Med Ctr, Durham, NC 27710

1. Transplantation: We have been studying transplantation and organ rejection now for about 25 years. Work through the years has included extensive study of xenotransplantation and aspiration-induced pulmonary rejection, with Jeffrey Platt, Randy Bollinger, Duane Davis, and Shu Lin. New studies with organ preservation and Dr. Andrew Barbas are now underway.

2. Gut immunity: Research has focused on the promicrobial aspects of the immune system. In collaboration with Dr. Randy Bollinger, we have focused on the model of "immune inclusion" in the gut. Earlier work led to a determination of the apparent function of the human vermiform appendix. Ongoing studies are aimed at probing the evolution of the microbiota in the gut in response to changing environments, a process that may be important in a wide range of inflammatory diseases.

3. Protein folding: Research has focused on the potential role of amphiphilic α-helical potential in the folding of all proteins, including predominantly β-sheet proteins. We are currently conducting experiments aimed at evaluating the working hypothesis that α-helical "dormant domains" are involved in the folding of β-sheet proteins.

4. The biota alteration theory, or biome depletion theory: What is widely known as the “hygiene hypothesis” is more appropriately described as the biota alteration or biome depletion theory: Changes in symbiont composition in the ecosystem of the human body in Western culture has led to immune dysfunction and subsequent disease. We are working on several aspects of this theory. Our earlier studies probe the immunological differences between laboratory-raised and wild-raised animals as a means of assessing differences between humans with and without Western culture, respectively. Other studies probe the role of biome enrichment, in particular the addition of helminths, in the treatment of disease. Studies are ongoing in both humans and in animals, with particular attention to the role of biome depletion in cognitive dysfunction.

Education and Training

  • Ph.D., University of Nebraska Omaha, 1992

Publications

Smith, H. F., R. E. Fisher, M. L. Everett, A. D. Thomas, R Randal Bollinger, and W. Parker. “Comparative anatomy and phylogenetic distribution of the mammalian cecal appendix.” J Evol Biol 22, no. 10 (October 2009): 1984–99. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1420-9101.2009.01809.x.

Full Text

Fisher, Rebecca E., Heather F. Smith, R Randal Bollinger, and William Parker. “A never-ending pain in the ...: That annoying appendix.” In Faseb Journal, Vol. 23. FEDERATION AMER SOC EXP BIOL, 2009.

Scholars@Duke

Lee, Sean M., Ching Tzao, Frank Schneider, Zoie Holzknecht, Anitra Thomas, Kuei-Ying Su, William D. Parker, Robert D. Davis, Chih Mei Chang, and Shu S. Lin. “The Role of Macrophages in the Response to Aspirated Gastric Fluid in Lung Allografts.” In American Journal of Transplantation, 9:393–393. WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC, 2009.

Scholars@Duke

Downing, Tacy E., Thomas A. Sporn, R Randal Bollinger, R Duane Davis, William Parker, and Shu S. Lin. “Pulmonary histopathology in an experimental model of chronic aspiration is independent of acidity.” Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 233, no. 10 (October 2008): 1202–12. https://doi.org/10.3181/0801-RM-17.

Full Text

Li, B., M. G. Hartwig, J. Z. Appel, E. L. Bush, K. R. Balsara, Z. E. Holzknecht, B. H. Collins, et al. “Chronic aspiration of gastric fluid induces the development of obliterative bronchiolitis in rat lung transplants.” Am J Transplant 8, no. 8 (August 2008): 1614–21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-6143.2008.02298.x.

Full Text

Barbas, A. S., T. E. Downing, K. R. Balsara, H. E. Tan, G. J. Rubinstein, Z. E. Holzknecht, B. H. Collins, W. Parker, R. D. Davis, and S. S. Lin. “Chronic aspiration shifts the immune response from Th1 to Th2 in a murine model of asthma.” Eur J Clin Invest 38, no. 8 (August 2008): 596–602. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2362.2008.01976.x.

Full Text

Randal Bollinger, R., Andrew S. Barbas, Errol L. Bush, Shu S. Lin, and William Parker. “Biofilms in the large bowel suggest an apparent function of the human vermiform appendix.” J Theor Biol 249, no. 4 (December 21, 2007): 826–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2007.08.032.

Full Text

Appel, James Z., Sean M. Lee, Matthew G. Hartwig, Bin Li, Chong-Chao Hsieh, Edward Cantu, Yonghan Yoon, Shu S. Lin, William Parker, and R Duane Davis. “Characterization of the innate immune response to chronic aspiration in a novel rodent model.” Respir Res 8 (November 27, 2007): 87. https://doi.org/10.1186/1465-9921-8-87.

Full Text

Bollinger, R Randal, Andrew S. Barbas, Errol L. Bush, Shu S. Lin, and William Parker. “Biofilms in the normal human large bowel: fact rather than fiction.” Gut, October 2007.

Scholars@Duke

Bush, Errol L., Keki R. Balsara, Matthew G. Hartwig, James Z. Appel, Edward Cantu, Sinan A. Simsir, William R. Parker, Scott M. Palmer, Shu S. Lin, and R Duane Davis. “Effectiveness of non-primary single lung transplants for patients with COPD and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) following initial lung transplant.” In American Journal of Transplantation, 7:246–246. BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, 2007.

Scholars@Duke

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