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William Parker, PhD

Associate Professor of Surgery
Office: 487 Med Sci Res Bldg, Durham, NC 27710
Campus Mail: DUMC Box 2605 Med Ctr, Durham, NC 27710

1. Transplantation: We have been studying transplantation and organ rejection now for about 25 years. Work through the years has included extensive study of xenotransplantation and aspiration-induced pulmonary rejection, with Jeffrey Platt, Randy Bollinger, Duane Davis, and Shu Lin. New studies with organ preservation and Dr. Andrew Barbas are now underway.

2. Gut immunity: Research has focused on the promicrobial aspects of the immune system. In collaboration with Dr. Randy Bollinger, we have focused on the model of "immune inclusion" in the gut. Earlier work led to a determination of the apparent function of the human vermiform appendix. Ongoing studies are aimed at probing the evolution of the microbiota in the gut in response to changing environments, a process that may be important in a wide range of inflammatory diseases.

3. Protein folding: Research has focused on the potential role of amphiphilic α-helical potential in the folding of all proteins, including predominantly β-sheet proteins. We are currently conducting experiments aimed at evaluating the working hypothesis that α-helical "dormant domains" are involved in the folding of β-sheet proteins.

4. The biota alteration theory, or biome depletion theory: What is widely known as the “hygiene hypothesis” is more appropriately described as the biota alteration or biome depletion theory: Changes in symbiont composition in the ecosystem of the human body in Western culture has led to immune dysfunction and subsequent disease. We are working on several aspects of this theory. Our earlier studies probe the immunological differences between laboratory-raised and wild-raised animals as a means of assessing differences between humans with and without Western culture, respectively. Other studies probe the role of biome enrichment, in particular the addition of helminths, in the treatment of disease. Studies are ongoing in both humans and in animals, with particular attention to the role of biome depletion in cognitive dysfunction.

Education and Training

  • Ph.D., University of Nebraska Omaha, 1992

Publications

Parker, William, Jonathan S. Berek, Elizabeth Pritts, David Olive, Andrew M. Kaunitz, Eva Chalas, Daniel Clarke-Pearson, et al. “An Open Letter to the Food and Drug Administration Regarding the Use of Morcellation Procedures in Women Having Surgery for Presumed Uterine Myomas.” J Minim Invasive Gynecol, March 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmig.2015.12.012.

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Leung, Jason H., Jui-Chih Chang, Sadé M. Bell, Zoie E. Holzknecht, Samantha M. Thomas, Mary Lou Everett, William Parker, R Duane Davis, and Shu S. Lin. “The role of soluble and insoluble gastric fluid components in the pathogenesis of obliterative bronchiolitis in rat lung allografts.” Transpl Int 29, no. 2 (February 2016): 253–61. https://doi.org/10.1111/tri.12715.

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Leung, Jason H., Jui-Chih Chang, Emily Foltz, Sadé M. Bell, Cinthia Pi, Sassan Azad, Mary Lou Everett, et al. “Clearance of bile and trypsin in rat lungs following aspiration of human gastric fluid.” Exp Lung Res 42, no. 1 (2016): 37–43. https://doi.org/10.3109/01902148.2016.1139213.

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Williamson, Lauren L., Erin A. McKenney, Zoie E. Holzknecht, Christine Belliveau, John F. Rawls, Susan Poulton, William Parker, and Staci D. Bilbo. “Got worms? Perinatal exposure to helminths prevents persistent immune sensitization and cognitive dysfunction induced by early-life infection.” Brain Behav Immun 51 (January 2016): 14–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2015.07.006.

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Douketis, J., A. Spyropoulos, S. Kaatz, J. Caprini, A. Dunn, D. Garcia, A. Jacobson, et al. “Bridging anticoagulation in patients who require temporary interruption of warfarin therapy for an elective invasive procedure or surgery (the bridge trial).” In Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 13:83–84. WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2015.

Scholars@Duke

Sapmaz, E., Z. Sun, J. -. C. Chang, N. Sanders, S. Bell, M. Everett, Z. Holzknecht, W. Parker, R. Davis, and S. Lin. “Effects of Mast Cell Stabilization on the Development of Aspiration-Induced Fibrosis in a Rat Model.” In American Journal of Transplantation, Vol. 15. WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2015.

Scholars@Duke

Bilbo, Staci D., Cynthia D. Nevison, and William Parker. “A model for the induction of autism in the ecosystem of the human body: the anatomy of a modern pandemic?” Microb Ecol Health Dis 26 (2015): 26253. https://doi.org/10.3402/mehd.v26.26253.

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McKenney, Erin A., Lauren Williamson, Anne D. Yoder, John F. Rawls, Staci D. Bilbo, and William Parker. “Alteration of the rat cecal microbiome during colonization with the helminth Hymenolepis diminuta.” Gut Microbes 6, no. 3 (2015): 182–93. https://doi.org/10.1080/19490976.2015.1047128.

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Foltz, Emily, Sassan Azad, Mary Lou Everett, Zoie E. Holzknecht, Nathan L. Sanders, J Will Thompson, Laura G. Dubois, et al. “An assessment of human gastric fluid composition as a function of PPI usage.” Physiol Rep 3, no. 1 (January 1, 2015). https://doi.org/10.14814/phy2.12269.

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Frye, Richard E., John Slattery, Derrick F. MacFabe, Emma Allen-Vercoe, William Parker, John Rodakis, James B. Adams, et al. “Approaches to studying and manipulating the enteric microbiome to improve autism symptoms.” Microb Ecol Health Dis 26 (2015): 26878. https://doi.org/10.3402/mehd.v26.26878.

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