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William Parker, PhD

Associate Professor of Surgery
Office: 487 Med Sci Res Bldg, Durham, NC 27710
Campus Mail: DUMC Box 2605 Med Ctr, Durham, NC 27710

1. Transplantation: We have been studying transplantation and organ rejection now for about 25 years. Work through the years has included extensive study of xenotransplantation and aspiration-induced pulmonary rejection, with Jeffrey Platt, Randy Bollinger, Duane Davis, and Shu Lin. New studies with organ preservation and Dr. Andrew Barbas are now underway.

2. Gut immunity: Research has focused on the promicrobial aspects of the immune system. In collaboration with Dr. Randy Bollinger, we have focused on the model of "immune inclusion" in the gut. Earlier work led to a determination of the apparent function of the human vermiform appendix. Ongoing studies are aimed at probing the evolution of the microbiota in the gut in response to changing environments, a process that may be important in a wide range of inflammatory diseases.

3. Protein folding: Research has focused on the potential role of amphiphilic α-helical potential in the folding of all proteins, including predominantly β-sheet proteins. We are currently conducting experiments aimed at evaluating the working hypothesis that α-helical "dormant domains" are involved in the folding of β-sheet proteins.

4. The biota alteration theory, or biome depletion theory: What is widely known as the “hygiene hypothesis” is more appropriately described as the biota alteration or biome depletion theory: Changes in symbiont composition in the ecosystem of the human body in Western culture has led to immune dysfunction and subsequent disease. We are working on several aspects of this theory. Our earlier studies probe the immunological differences between laboratory-raised and wild-raised animals as a means of assessing differences between humans with and without Western culture, respectively. Other studies probe the role of biome enrichment, in particular the addition of helminths, in the treatment of disease. Studies are ongoing in both humans and in animals, with particular attention to the role of biome depletion in cognitive dysfunction.

Education and Training

  • Ph.D., University of Nebraska Omaha, 1992


Parker, W., D. Bruno, Z. E. Holzknecht, and J. L. Platt. “Characterization and affinity isolation of xenoreactive human natural antibodies.” J Immunol 153, no. 8 (October 15, 1994): 3791–3803.


Parker, W., P. Goebel, C. R. Ross, P. S. Song, and J. J. Stezowski. “Molecular modeling of phytochrome using constitutive C-phycocyanin from Fremyella diplosiphon as a putative structural template.” Bioconjug Chem 5, no. 1 (January 1994): 21–30.

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Chen, E., J. W. Lewis, D. S. Kliger, W. Parker, and P. S. Song. “Time-Resolved UV Circular Dichroism of Phytochrome A: Folding of the N-Terminal Region.” Journal of the American Chemical Society 115, no. 21 (October 1, 1993): 9854–55.

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Parker, W., M. Partis, and P. S. Song. “N-terminal domain of Avena phytochrome: interactions with sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles and N-terminal chain truncated phytochrome.” Biochemistry 31, no. 39 (October 6, 1992): 9413–20.

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Parker, W., and P. S. Song. “Location of helical regions in tetrapyrrole-containing proteins by a helical hydrophobic moment analysis. Application to phytochrome.” J Biol Chem 265, no. 29 (October 15, 1990): 17568–75.


Choi, J. K., I. S. Kim, T. I. Kwon, W. Parker, and P. S. Song. “Spectral perturbations and oligomer/monomer formation in 124-kilodalton Avena phytochrome.” Biochemistry 29, no. 29 (July 24, 1990): 6883–91.

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