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William Parker

Associate Professor in Surgery
Adjunct Associate Professor of Global Health
Office: 487 Med Sci Res Bldg, Durham, NC 27710
Campus Mail: DUMC Box 2605 Med Ctr, Durham, NC 27710

1. Transplantation: We have been studying transplantation and organ rejection now for about 25 years. Work through the years has included extensive study of xenotransplantation and aspiration-induced pulmonary rejection, with Jeffrey Platt, Randy Bollinger, Duane Davis, and Shu Lin. New studies with organ preservation and Dr. Andrew Barbas are now underway.

2. Gut immunity: Research has focused on the promicrobial aspects of the immune system. In collaboration with Dr. Randy Bollinger, we have focused on the model of "immune inclusion" in the gut. Earlier work led to a determination of the apparent function of the human vermiform appendix. Ongoing studies are aimed at probing the evolution of the microbiota in the gut in response to changing environments, a process that may be important in a wide range of inflammatory diseases.

3. Protein folding: Research has focused on the potential role of amphiphilic α-helical potential in the folding of all proteins, including predominantly β-sheet proteins. We are currently conducting experiments aimed at evaluating the working hypothesis that α-helical "dormant domains" are involved in the folding of β-sheet proteins.

4. The biota alteration theory, or biome depletion theory: What is widely known as the “hygiene hypothesis” is more appropriately described as the biota alteration or biome depletion theory: Changes in symbiont composition in the ecosystem of the human body in Western culture has led to immune dysfunction and subsequent disease. We are working on several aspects of this theory. Our earlier studies probe the immunological differences between laboratory-raised and wild-raised animals as a means of assessing differences between humans with and without Western culture, respectively. Other studies probe the role of biome enrichment, in particular the addition of helminths, in the treatment of disease. Studies are ongoing in both humans and in animals, with particular attention to the role of biome depletion in cognitive dysfunction.

Publications

Moris, Dimitrios, Jun Wang, Maria Angelica Selim, Mingqing Song, Linda Stempora, William Parker, Allan D. Kirk, and Linda C. Cendales. “Vascularized composite allotransplants as a mechanistic model for allograft rejection - an experimental study.” Transpl Int 34, no. 3 (March 2021): 572–84. https://doi.org/10.1111/tri.13820.

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Gloria, Jared N., John Yerxa, Samuel J. Kesseli, Robert P. Davis, Mariya L. Samoylova, Andrew S. Barbas, Matthew G. Hartwig, and Matthew G. Duke Ex Vivo Organ Laboratory. “Subnormothermic ex vivo lung perfusion attenuates graft inflammation in a rat transplant model.” J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, January 30, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2021.01.066.

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Parker, William, Joshua T. Sarafian, Sherryl A. Broverman, and Jon D. Laman. “Authors' response to Graham Rook's commentary.” Evol Med Public Health 9, no. 1 (2021): 206–7. https://doi.org/10.1093/emph/eoab012.

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Parker, William, Joshua T. Sarafian, Sherryl A. Broverman, and Jon D. Laman. “Between a hygiene rock and a hygienic hard place: Avoiding SARS-CoV-2 while needing environmental exposures for immunity.” Evol Med Public Health 9, no. 1 (2021): 120–30. https://doi.org/10.1093/emph/eoab006.

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Venkatakrishnan, Aarushi, Zoie E. Holzknecht, Rob Holzknecht, Dawn E. Bowles, Sanet H. Kotzé, Jennifer L. Modliszewski, and William Parker. “Evolution of bacteria in the human gut in response to changing environments: An invisible player in the game of health.” Comput Struct Biotechnol J 19 (2021): 752–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2021.01.007.

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Sauer, Scott, Dylan Beinart, Sade M. B. Finn, Sereena L. Kumar, Qing Cheng, Shelley E. Hwang, William Parker, and Gayathri R. Devi. “Hymenolepis diminuta-based helminth therapy in C3(1)-TAg mice does not alter breast tumor onset or progression.” Evol Med Public Health 9, no. 1 (2021): 131–38. https://doi.org/10.1093/emph/eoab007.

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Suda, Navneet, Jasmine Cendejas Hernandez, John Poulton, John P. Jones, Zacharoula Konsoula, Caroline Smith, and William Parker. “Therapeutic doses of acetaminophen with co-administration of cysteine and mannitol during early development result in long term behavioral changes in laboratory rats.” Plos One 16, no. 6 (2021): e0253543. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0253543.

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Venkatakrishnan, Aarushi, Joshua Hames, Kateřina Jirků-Pomajbíková, and William Parker. “Socio-Medical Studies of Individuals Self-Treating with Helminths Suggest That Most Clinical Trials Assessing Helminth Therapy May Be Designed to Fail,” December 14, 2020. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202012.0340.v1.

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Cendejas-Hernandez, Jasmine, Joshua Sarafian, Victoria Lawton, Antara Palkar, Lauren Anderson, Vincent Lariviere, and William Parker. “Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) Use in Infants and Children was Never Shown to be Safe for Neurodevelopment: A Systematic Review,” November 4, 2020. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202011.0173.v1.

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Nevison, Cynthia, and William Parker. “California Autism Prevalence by County and Race/Ethnicity: Declining Trends Among Wealthy Whites.” J Autism Dev Disord 50, no. 11 (November 2020): 4011–21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04460-0.

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