William Parker, PhD

Associate Professor of Surgery
Department / Division:
Surgery / Surgical Sciences
487 Med Sci Res Bldg
Durham, NC 27710
Office Telephone:
(919) 681-3886
  • PhD, University of Nebraska Omaha, 1992
Research Interests:
1. Transplantation: We are evaluating the role of gastroesophageal reflux as a cause of pulmonary allograft dysfunction and immune cell activation. Research is conducted in collaboration with Dr. R. Duane Davis and Dr. Shu S. Lin (Thoracic Surgery Division) in the Department of Surgery and focuses on pulmonary transplantation.

2. Gut immunity: Research has focused on the promicrobial aspects of the immune system. In collaboration with Dr. Randy Bollinger, we have focused on the model of "immune inclusion" in the gut. Work has led to a determination of the apparent function of the human appendix.

3. Protein folding: Research has focused on the potential role of amphiphilic α-helical potential in the folding of all proteins, including predominantly β-sheet proteins. We are currently conducting experiments aimed at evaluating the working hypothesis that α-helical "dormant domains" are involved in the folding of β-sheet proteins.

4. The biome depletion theory: What is widely known as the “hygiene hypothesis” is more appropriately described as the biome depletion theory: A loss of species diversity from the ecosystem of the human body in Western culture has led to immune dysfunction and subsequent disease. We are working on several aspects of this theory. Our longest-running studies probe the immunological differences between laboratory-raised and wild-raised animals as a means of assessing differences between humans with and without Western culture, respectively. Other studies probe the role of biome enrichment, in particular the addition of helminths, in the treatment of disease. Studies are ongoing in both humans and in animals, with particular attention to the role of biome depletion in cancer and in cognitive dysfunction. Ongoing studies also probe the evolution of the microbiome, but manipulation of the microbiome apparently has far less impact on disease, in both animal models and humans, than manipulation of the eukaryotic portion of the biome.
Representative Publications:
  • Dishaw, LJ; Cannon, JP; Litman, GW; Parker, W. Immune-directed support of rich microbial communities in the gut has ancient roots. Developmental & Comparative Immunology. 2014;47:36-51.  Abstract
  • Parker, W. The "hygiene hypothesis" for allergic disease is a misnomer. BMJ. 2014;349:g5267-g5267.  
  • Parker, W; Ollerton, J. Evolutionary biology and anthropology suggest biome reconstitution as a necessary approach toward dealing with immune disorders. Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health. 2013;2013:89-103.  Abstract
  • Sanders, NL; Bollinger, RR; Lee, R; Thomas, S; Parker, W. Appendectomy and Clostridium difficile colitis: relationships revealed by clinical observations and immunology. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2013;19:5607-5614.  Abstract
  • Smith, HF; Parker, W; Kotzé, SH; Laurin, M. Multiple independent appearances of the cecal appendix in mammalian evolution and an investigation of related ecological and anatomical factors. Comptes Rendus Palevol. 2013;  
  • Smith, HF; Parker, W; Kotzé, SH; Laurin, M. Multiple independent appearances of the cecal appendix in mammalian evolution and an investigation of related ecological and anatomical factors. Comptes Rendus Palevol. 2013;12:339-354.  
  • Tang, T; Chang, JC; Xie, A; Davis, RD; Parker, W; Lin, SS. Aspiration of gastric fluid in pulmonary allografts: Effect of pH. Journal of Surgical Research. 2013;181:E31-E38.  
  • Tang, T; Chang, JC; Xie, A; Davis, RD; Parker, W; Lin, SS. Aspiration of gastric fluid in pulmonary allografts: effect of pH. Journal of Surgical Research. 2013;181:e31-e38.  Abstract
  • Chang, JC; Leung, JH; Tang, T; Hartwig, MG; Holzknecht, ZE; Parker, W; Davis, RD; Lin, SS. In the face of chronic aspiration, prolonged ischemic time exacerbates obliterative bronchiolitis in rat pulmonary allografts. American Journal of Transplantation. 2012;12:2930-2937.  Abstract
  • Parker, W; Perkins, SE; Harker, M; Muehlenbein, MP. A prescription for clinical immunology: The pills are available and ready for testing. A review. Current Medical Research and Opinion. 2012;28:1193-1202.  Abstract
  • Trama, AM; Holzknecht, ZE; Thomas, AD; Su, KY; Lee, SM; Foltz, EE; Perkins, SE; Lin, SS; Parker, W. Lymphocyte phenotypes in wild-caught rats suggest potential mechanisms underlying increased immune sensitivity in post-industrial environments. Cellular & molecular immunology. 2012;9:163-174.  Abstract
  • Zhang, AQ; Lee, SYR; Truneh, M; Everett, ML; Parker, W. Human whey promotes sessile bacterial growth, whereas alternative sources of infant nutrition promote planktonic growth. Current nutrition and food science. 2012;8:168-176.  
  • Bilbo, SD; Wray, GA; Perkins, SE; Parker, W. Reconstitution of the human biome as the most reasonable solution for epidemics of allergic and autoimmune diseases. Medical Hypotheses. 2011;77:494-504.  Abstract
  • Bush, EL; Barbas, AS; Holzknecht, ZE; Byrne, GW; McGregor, CG; Parker, W; Davis, RD; Lin, SS. Coagulopathy in ¿-galactosyl transferase knockout pulmonary xenotransplants. Xenotransplantation. 2011;18:6-13.  Abstract
  • Kotzé, SH; Holzknecht, ZE; Thomas, AD; Everett, ML; Taylor, S; Duckett, LD; Whitesides, J; McDermott, P; Lin, SS; Parker, W. Spontaneous bacterial cell lysis and biofilm formation in the colon of the Cape Dune mole-rat and the laboratory rabbit. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2011;90:1773-1783.  Abstract
  • Laurin, M; Everett, ML; Parker, W. The cecal appendix: one more immune component with a function disturbed by post-industrial culture. The Anatomical Record : Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology. 2011;294:567-579.  Abstract
  • Lee, SY; Parker, W. Amphiphilic ¿-helical potential: a putative folding motif adding few constraints to protein evolution. Journal of Molecular Evolution. 2011;73:166-180.  Abstract
  • Lee, YH; Su, KY; Wyse, A; Barbas, A; Palestrandt, D; Shieh, K; Everett, ML; Devalapalli, A; Orndorff, PE; Bollinger, RR; Parker, W. Incorporation of secretory immunoglobulin A into biofilms can decrease their resistance to ciprofloxacin. Microbiology and Immunology. 2011;55:174-183.  Abstract
  • Chen, E; Everett, ML; Holzknecht, ZE; Holzknecht, RA; Lin, SS; Bowles, DE; Parker, W. Short-lived alpha-helical intermediates in the folding of beta-sheet proteins. Biochemistry. 2010;49:5609-5619.  Abstract
  • Cheng, CM; Hsieh, CC; Lin, CS; Dai, ZK; Shih, PK; Everett, ML; Thomas, AD; Parker, W; Davis, RD; Lin, SS. Macrophage activation by gastric fluid suggests MMP involvement in aspiration-induced lung disease. Immunobiology. 2010;215:173-181.  Abstract
  • Lee, SM; Wyse, A; Lesher, A; Everett, ML; Lou, L; Holzknecht, ZE; Whitesides, JF; Spears, PA; Bowles, DE; Lin, SS; Tonkonogy, SL; Orndorff, PE; Bollinger, RR; Parker, W. Adaptation in a mouse colony monoassociated with Escherichia coli K-12 for more than 1,000 days. Applied and environmental microbiology. 2010;76:4655-4663.  Abstract
  • Thomas, AD; Parker, W. Cultivation of epithelial-associated microbiota by the immune system. Future microbiology. 2010;5:1483-1492.  Abstract
  • Thomas, AD; Su, KY; Chang, JC; Leung, JH; Lee, SM; Holzknecht, ZE; Everett, ML; Parker, W; Davis, RD; Lin, SS. Gastroesophageal reflux-associated aspiration alters the immune response in asthma. Surgical Endoscopy. 2010;24:1066-1074.  Abstract
  • Barbas, AS; Lesher, AP; Thomas, AD; Wyse, A; Devalapalli, AP; Lee, YH; Tan, HE; Orndorff, PE; Bollinger, RR; Parker, W. Altering and assessing persistence of genetically modified E. coli MG1655 in the large bowel. Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.). 2009;234:1174-1185.  Abstract
  • Smith, HF; Fisher, RE; Everett, ML; Thomas, AD; Bollinger, RR; Parker, W. Comparative anatomy and phylogenetic distribution of the mammalian cecal appendix. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 2009;22:1984-1999.  Abstract
  • Barbas, AS; Downing, TE; Balsara, KR; Tan, HE; Rubinstein, GJ; Holzknecht, ZE; Collins, BH; Parker, W; Davis, RD; Lin, SS. Chronic aspiration shifts the immune response from Th1 to Th2 in a murine model of asthma. European Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2008;38:596-602.  Abstract
  • Downing, TE; Sporn, TA; Bollinger, RR; Davis, RD; Parker, W; Lin, SS. Pulmonary histopathology in an experimental model of chronic aspiration is independent of acidity. Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.). 2008;233:1202-1212.  Abstract
  • Li, B; Hartwig, MG; Appel, JZ; Bush, EL; Balsara, KR; Holzknecht, ZE; Collins, BH; Howell, DN; Parker, W; Lin, SS; Davis, RD. Chronic aspiration of gastric fluid induces the development of obliterative bronchiolitis in rat lung transplants. American Journal of Transplantation. 2008;8:1614-1621.  Abstract
  • Appel, JZ; Lee, SM; Hartwig, MG; Li, B; Hsieh, CC; Cantu, E; Yoon, Y; Lin, SS; Parker, W; Davis, RD. Characterization of the innate immune response to chronic aspiration in a novel rodent model. Respiratory Research. 2007;8:87.  Abstract
  • Bollinger, RR; Barbas, AS; Bush, EL; Lin, SS; Parker, W. Biofilms in the normal human large bowel: fact rather than fiction. Gut. 2007;56:1481-1482.  Abstract
  • Cantu, E; Balsara, KR; Li, B; Lau, C; Gibson, S; Wyse, A; Baig, K; Gaca, J; Gonzalez-Stawinski, GV; Nichols, T; Parker, W; Davis, RD. Prolonged function of macrophage, von Willebrand factor-deficient porcine pulmonary xenografts. American Journal of Transplantation. 2007;7:66-75.  Abstract
  • Randal Bollinger, R; Barbas, AS; Bush, EL; Lin, SS; Parker, W. Biofilms in the large bowel suggest an apparent function of the human vermiform appendix. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 2007;249:826-831.  Abstract
  • Bollinger, RR; Everett, ML; Wahl, SD; Lee, YH; Orndorff, PE; Parker, W. Secretory IgA and mucin-mediated biofilm formation by environmental strains of Escherichia coli: role of type 1 pili. Molecular Immunology. 2006;43:378-387.  Abstract
  • Cantu, E; Gaca, JG; Palestrant, D; Baig, K; Lukes, DJ; Gibson, SE; Gonzalez-Stawinski, GV; Olausson, M; Parker, W; Davis, RD. Depletion of pulmonary intravascular macrophages prevents hyperacute pulmonary xenograft dysfunction. Transplantation. 2006;81:1157-1164.  Abstract
  • Devalapalli, AP; Lesher, A; Shieh, K; Solow, JS; Everett, ML; Edala, AS; Whitt, P; Long, RR; Newton, N; Parker, W. Increased levels of IgE and autoreactive, polyreactive IgG in wild rodents: implications for the hygiene hypothesis. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. 2006;64:125-136.  Abstract
  • Gaca, JG; Appel, JZ; Lukes, JG; Gonzalez-Stawinski, GV; Lesher, A; Palestrant, D; Logan, JS; Love, SD; Holzknecht, ZE; Platt, JL; Parker, W; Davis, RD. Effect of an anti-C5a monoclonal antibody indicates a prominent role for anaphylatoxin in pulmonary xenograft dysfunction. Transplantation. 2006;81:1686-1694.  Abstract
  • Hartwig, MG; Appel, JZ; Li, B; Hsieh, CC; Yoon, YH; Lin, SS; Irish, W; Parker, W; Davis, RD. Chronic aspiration of gastric fluid accelerates pulmonary allograft dysfunction in a rat model of lung transplantation. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2006;131:209-217.  Abstract
  • Lesher, A; Li, B; Whitt, P; Newton, N; Devalapalli, AP; Shieh, K; Solow, JS; Parker, W. Increased IL-4 production and attenuated proliferative and pro-inflammatory responses of splenocytes from wild-caught rats (Rattus norvegicus). Immunology and cell biology. 2006;84:374-382.  Abstract
  • Lawson, JH; Lynn, KA; Vanmatre, RM; Domzalski, T; Klemp, KF; Ortel, TL; Niklason, LE; Parker, W. Antihuman factor V antibodies after use of relatively pure bovine thrombin. Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2005;79:1037-1038.  Abstract
  • Lukes, DJ; Cantu, E; Gaca, JG; Hallberg, E; Karlsson-Parra, A; Parker, W; Olausson, M; Davis, RD. Oral feeding with pig peripheral lymphocytes decreases the xenogeneic delayed type hypersensitivity reaction in galactosyltransferase knockout mice. Transplantation Proceedings. 2005;37:3327-3331.  Abstract
  • Parker, W; Lesher, AP. In pursuit of xenoreactive antibodies: where has it gotten us?. Immunology and cell biology. 2005;83:413-417.  Abstract
  • Yu, PB; Parker, W; Nayak, JV; Platt, JL. Sensitization with xenogeneic tissues alters the heavy chain repertoire of human anti-Galalpha1-3Gal antibodies. Transplantation. 2005;80:102-109.  Abstract
  • Cantu, E; Parker, W; Platt, JL; Duane Davis, R. Pulmonary xenotransplantation: rapidly progressing into the unknown. American Journal of Transplantation. 2004;4 Suppl 6:25-35.  Abstract
  • Orndorff, PE; Devapali, A; Palestrant, S; Wyse, A; Everett, ML; Bollinger, RR; Parker, W. Immunoglobulin-mediated agglutination of and biofilm formation by Escherichia coli K-12 require the type 1 pilus fiber. Infection and immunity. 2004;72:1929-1938.  Abstract
  • Palestrant, D; Holzknecht, ZE; Collins, BH; Parker, W; Miller, SE; Bollinger, RR. Microbial biofilms in the gut: visualization by electron microscopy and by acridine orange staining. Ultrastructural Pathology (Informa). 2004;28:23-27.  Abstract
  • Bollinger, RR; Everett, ML; Palestrant, D; Love, SD; Lin, SS; Parker, W. Human secretory immunoglobulin A may contribute to biofilm formation in the gut. Immunology. 2003;109:580-587.  Abstract
  • Everett, ML; Collins, BH; Parker, W. Kupffer cells: another player in liver tolerance induction. Liver Transplantation. 2003;9:498-499.  Abstract
  • Everett, ML; Lin, SS; Worrell, SS; Platt, JL; Parker, W. The footprint of antibody bound to pig cells: evidence of complex surface topology. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2003;301:751-757.  Abstract
  • Gaca, JG; Palestrant, D; Lukes, DJ; Olausson, M; Parker, W; Davis, RD. Prevention of acute lung injury in swine: depletion of pulmonary intravascular macrophages using liposomal clodronate. Journal of Surgical Research. 2003;112:19-25.  Abstract
  • Lau, CL; Cantu, E; Gonzalez-Stawinski, GV; Holzknecht, ZE; Nichols, TC; Posther, KE; Rayborn, CA; Platt, JL; Parker, W; Davis, RD. The role of antibodies and von Willebrand factor in discordant pulmonary xenotransplantation. American Journal of Transplantation. 2003;3:1065-1075.  Abstract
  • Parker, W. Polyreactive antibodies and their association with xenotransplantation. Xenotransplantation. 2003;10:542-544.  Abstract
  • Schoenecker, JG; Johnson, RK; Fields, RC; Lesher, AP; Domzalski, T; Baig, K; Lawson, JH; Parker, W. Relative purity of thrombin-based hemostatic agents used in surgery. Journal of The American College of Surgeons. 2003;197:580-590.  Abstract
  • Gaca, JG; Lesher, A; Aksoy, O; Gonzalez-Stawinski, GV; Platt, JL; Lawson, JH; Parker, W; Davis, RD. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in association with pig-to-primate pulmonary xenotransplantation. Transplantation. 2002;73:1717-1723.  Abstract
  • Gaca, JG; Lesher, A; Aksoy, O; Ruggeri, ZM; Parker, W; Davis, RD. The role of the porcine von Willebrand factor: baboon platelet interactions in pulmonary xenotransplantation. Transplantation. 2002;74:1596-1603.  Abstract
  • Gonzalez-Stawinski, GV; Daggett, CW; Lau, CL; Karoor, S; Love, SD; Logan, JS; Gaca, JG; Parker, W; Davis, RD. Non-anti-Gal alpha1-3Gal antibody mechanisms are sufficient to cause hyperacute lung dysfunction in pulmonary xenotransplantation. Journal of The American College of Surgeons. 2002;194:765-773.  Abstract
  • Lee, W; Gaca, JG; Edwards, LA; Braedehoeft, SJ; Parker, W; Davis, RD. Binding of polyreactive antibodies to self versus foreign antigens. Immunobiology. 2002;205:95-107.  Abstract
  • Gaca, JG; Lee, W; Aksoy, O; Braedehoeft, SJ; Gonzalez-Stawinski, GV; Parker, W; Davis, RD. Evidence for polyreactive xenoreactive antibodies in the repertoire of human anti-swine antibodies: the 'next' humoral barrier to xenotransplantation?. Transplant Immunology. 2001;9:19-27.  Abstract
  • Gonzalez-Stawinski, GV; Yu, PB; Love, SD; Parker, W; Davis, RD. Hapten-induced primary and memory humoral responses are inhibited by the infusion of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (IDEC-C2B8, Rituximab). Clinical Immunology. 2001;98:175-179.  Abstract
  • Love, SD; Lee, W; Nakamura, YC; Platt, JL; Bollinger, RR; Parker, W. Unexpected anti-alpha GalNAc antibodies in alpha-galactosyl transferase-deficient mice: complex relationship between genotype and the natural antibody repertoire. Immunobiology. 2001;203:650-658.  Abstract
  • Parker, W; Lin, SS; Platt, JL. Antigen expression in xenotransplantation: how low must it go?. Transplantation. 2001;71:313-319.  Abstract
  • Parker, W; Sood, A; Song, A. Organization of regions with amphiphilic alpha-helical potential within the three-dimensional structure of beta-sheet proteins. Protein Engineering. 2001;14:315-319.  Abstract
  • Parker, W; Stitzenberg, KB; Yu, PB; Pratt, VS; Nakamura, YC; Farel, LS; Ward, CM; Lin, SS; Everett, ML; Platt, JL. Biophysical characteristics of anti-Gal(alpha)1-3Gal IgM binding to cell surfaces: implications for xenotransplantation. Transplantation. 2001;71:440-446.  Abstract
  • Schoenecker, JG; Johnson, RK; Lesher, AP; Day, JD; Love, SD; Hoffman, MR; Ortel, TL; Parker, W; Lawson, JH. Exposure of mice to topical bovine thrombin induces systemic autoimmunity. The American journal of pathology. 2001;159:1957-1969.  Abstract
  • Stezowski, JJ; Parker, W; Hilgenkamp, S; Gdaniec, M. Pseudopolymorphism in tetradeca-2,6-O-methyl-beta-cyclodextrin: the crystal structures for two new hydrates-conformational variability in the alkylated beta-cyclodextrin molecule. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2001;123:3919-3926.  Abstract
  • Lau, CL; Daggett, WC; Yeatman, MF; Chai, P; Lin, SS; Lodge, AJ; Chen, EP; Diamond, LE; Byrne, GW; Logan, JS; Parker, W; Platt, JL; Davis, RD. The role of antibodies in dysfunction of pig-to-baboon pulmonary transplants. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2000;120:29-38.  Abstract
  • Lin, SS; Hanaway, MJ; Gonzalez-Stawinski, GV; Lau, CL; Parker, W; Davis, RD; Byrne, GW; Diamond, LE; Logan, JS; Platt, JL. The role of anti-Galalpha1-3Gal antibodies in acute vascular rejection and accommodation of xenografts. Transplantation. 2000;70:1667-1674.  Abstract
  • Love, SD; Lee, W; Nakamura, YC; Platt, JL; Bollinger, RR; Parker, W. Natural anti-carbohydrate IgM in mice: dependence on age and strain. Journal of Immunological Methods. 2000;246:61-68.  Abstract
  • Schoenecker, JG; Hauck, RK; Mercer, MC; Parker, W; Lawson, JH. Exposure to topical bovine thrombin during surgery elicits a response against the xenogeneic carbohydrate galactose alpha1-3galactose. Journal of Clinical Immunology. 2000;20:434-444.  Abstract
  • Gonzalez-Stawinski, GV; Parker, W; Holzknecht, ZE; Huber, NS; Platt, JL. Partial sequence of human platelet heparitinase and evidence of its ability to polymerize. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta: international journal of biochemistry and biophysics. 1999;1429:431-438.  Abstract
  • Parker, W; Lin, SS; Yu, PB; Sood, A; Nakamura, YC; Song, A; Everett, ML; Platt, JL. Naturally occurring anti-alpha-galactosyl antibodies: relationship to xenoreactive anti-alpha-galactosyl antibodies. Glycobiology. 1999;9:865-873.  Abstract
  • Yu, PB; Parker, W; Everett, ML; Fox, IJ; Platt, JL. Immunochemical properties of anti-Gal alpha 1-3Gal antibodies after sensitization with xenogeneic tissues. Journal of Clinical Immunology. 1999;19:116-126.  Abstract
  • Ihrcke, NS; Parker, W; Reissner, KJ; Platt, JL. Regulation of platelet heparanase during inflammation: role of pH and proteinases. Journal of Cellular Physiology. 1998;175:255-267.  Abstract
  • Lin, SS; Parker, W; Everett, ML; Platt, JL. Differential recognition by proteins of alpha-galactosyl residues on endothelial cell surfaces. Glycobiology. 1998;8:433-443.  Abstract
  • Lin, SS; Weidner, BC; Byrne, GW; Diamond, LE; Lawson, JH; Hoopes, CW; Daniels, LJ; Daggett, CW; Parker, W; Harland, RC; Davis, RD; Bollinger, RR; Logan, JS; Platt, JL. The role of antibodies in acute vascular rejection of pig-to-baboon cardiac transplants. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1998;101:1745-1756.  Abstract
  • Parker, W; Holzknecht, ZE; Song, A; Blocher, BA; Bustos, M; Reissner, KJ; Everett, ML; Platt, JL. Fate of antigen in xenotransplantation: implications for acute vascular rejection and accommodation. The American journal of pathology. 1998;152:829-839.  Abstract
  • Yeatman, M; Daggett, CW; Parker, W; Byrne, GW; Logan, JS; Platt, JL; Davis, RD. Complement-mediated pulmonary xenograft injury: studies in swine-to-primate orthotopic single lung transplant models. Transplantation. 1998;65:1084-1093.  Abstract
  • Lin, SS; Kooyman, DL; Daniels, LJ; Daggett, CW; Parker, W; Lawson, JH; Hoopes, CW; Gullotto, C; Li, L; Birch, P; Davis, RD; Diamond, LE; Logan, JS; Platt, JL. The role of natural anti-Gal alpha 1-3Gal antibodies in hyperacute rejection of pig-to-baboon cardiac xenotransplants. Transplant Immunology. 1997;5:212-218.  Abstract
  • McCurry, KR; Parker, W; Cotterell, AH; Weidner, BC; Lin, SS; Daniels, LJ; Holzknecht, ZE; Byrne, GW; Diamond, LE; Logan, JS; Platt, JL. Humoral responses to pig-to-baboon cardiac transplantation: implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of acute vascular rejection and for accommodation. Human Immunology. 1997;58:91-105.  Abstract
  • Parker, W; Yu, PB; Holzknecht, ZE; Lundberg, K; Buckley, RH; Platt, JL. Specificity and function of "natural" antibodies in immunodeficient subjects: clues to B cell lineage and development. Journal of Clinical Immunology. 1997;17:311-321.  Abstract
  • Alvarado, CG; Cotterell, AH; Parker, W; Logan, JS; Platt, JL. Variation in expression of biologically reactive xenoantigen does not correlate with expression of Gal alpha (1-3)Gal. Transplantation Proceedings. 1996;28:555.  Abstract
  • Cotterell, AH; Collins, BH; Parker, W; Harland, RC; Platt, JL. The humoral immune response in humans following ex vivo perfusion of porcine livers. Transplantation Proceedings. 1996;28:546.  Abstract
  • Kooyman, DL; McClellan, SB; Parker, W; Avissar, PL; Velardo, MA; Platt, JL; Logan, JS. Identification and characterization of a galactosyl peptide mimetic. Implications for use in removing xenoreactive anti-A Gal antibodies. Transplantation. 1996;61:851-855.  Abstract
  • Lin, SS; Holzknecht, ZE; Parker, W; Lindman, BJ; Platt, JL. Porcine endothelial cell membrane antigens recognized by human and baboon xenoreactive antibodies during organ perfusion. Transplantation Proceedings. 1996;28:607.  Abstract
  • Lin, SS; Parker, W; Lundberg-Swanson, K; Holtzknecht, ZE; Platt, JL. Xenoreactive natural antibodies and isohemagglutinins: a distinct class of antibodies. Transplantation Proceedings. 1996;28:573.  Abstract
  • Parker, W; Lateef, J; Everett, ML; Bruno, D; Platt, JL. Characterization of xenoreactive natural antibodies: interactions with carbohydrate determinants. Transplantation Proceedings. 1996;28:548.  Abstract
  • Parker, W; Lateef, J; Everett, ML; Platt, JL. Specificity of xenoreactive anti-Gal alpha 1-3Gal IgM for alpha-galactosyl ligands. Glycobiology. 1996;6:499-506.  Abstract
  • Parker, W; Lundberg-Swanson, K; Holzknecht, ZE; Lateef, J; Washburn, SA; Braedehoeft, SJ; Platt, JL. Isohemagglutinins and xenoreactive antibodies: members of a distinct family of natural antibodies. Human Immunology. 1996;45:94-104.  Abstract
  • Parker, W; Saadi, S; Lin, SS; Holzknecht, ZE; Bustos, M; Platt, JL. Transplantation of discordant xenografts: a challenge revisited. Immunology Today. 1996;17:373-378.  Abstract
  • Parker, W; Stezowski, JJ. The surface of beta-sheet proteins contains amphiphilic regions which may provide clues about protein folding. Proteins: Structure, Function and Bioinformatics. 1996;25:253-260.  Abstract
  • Yu, PB; Holzknecht, ZE; Bruno, D; Parker, W; Platt, JL. Modulation of natural IgM binding and complement activation by natural IgG antibodies: a role for IgG anti-Gal alpha1-3Gal antibodies. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 1996;157:5163-5168.  Abstract
  • Collins, BH; Cotterell, AH; McCurry, KR; Alvarado, CG; Magee, JC; Parker, W; Platt, JL. Cardiac xenografts between primate species provide evidence for the importance of the alpha-galactosyl determinant in hyperacute rejection. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 1995;154:5500-5510.  Abstract
  • Cotterell, AH; Collins, BH; Parker, W; Harland, RC; Platt, JL. The humoral immune response in humans following cross-perfusion of porcine organs. Transplantation. 1995;60:861-868.  Abstract
  • Parker, W; Bruno, D; Platt, JL. Xenoreactive natural antibodies in the world of natural antibodies: typical or unique?. Transplant Immunology. 1995;3:181-191.  Abstract
  • Parker, W; Wells, TA; Meza-Keuthen, S; Kim, IS; Song, PS. Purification and characterization of a 60-kDa protein from oat, formerly known as a TCP1-related chaperone. Journal of protein chemistry. 1995;14:53-57.  Abstract
  • Platt, JL; Parker, W. Another step towards xenotransplantation. Nature Medicine. 1995;1:1248-1250.  Abstract
  • Parker, W; Bruno, D; Holzknecht, ZE; Platt, JL. Characterization and affinity isolation of xenoreactive human natural antibodies. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 1994;153:3791-3803.  Abstract
  • Parker, W; Goebel, P; Ross, CR; Song, PS; Stezowski, JJ. Molecular modeling of phytochrome using constitutive C-phycocyanin from Fremyella diplosiphon as a putative structural template. Bioconjugate Chemistry. 1994;5:21-30.  Abstract
  • Parker, W; Partis, M; Song, PS. N-terminal domain of Avena phytochrome: interactions with sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles and N-terminal chain truncated phytochrome. Biochemistry. 1992;31:9413-9420.  Abstract
  • Parker, W; Song, PS. Protein structures in SDS micelle-protein complexes. Biophysical Journal. 1992;61:1435-1439.  Abstract
  • Choi, JK; Kim, IS; Kwon, TI; Parker, W; Song, PS. Spectral perturbations and oligomer/monomer formation in 124-kilodalton Avena phytochrome. Biochemistry. 1990;29:6883-6891.  Abstract
  • Parker, W; Song, PS. Location of helical regions in tetrapyrrole-containing proteins by a helical hydrophobic moment analysis. Application to phytochrome. The Journal of biological chemistry. 1990;265:17568-17575.  Abstract